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Historical Eras 1 - 5

 This section is under development. Eventually, each era will have its own page full of resources.
I am currently seeking a grant or other financial assistance to complete this work.
Meanwhile, I'm sure you'll find this sampler useful.

Era 1: Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)

Era 2: Colonization & Settlement (1585-1763)

Era 3: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820's)

Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Resources related to slavery in general are found here

Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

Eras 6-10 (New Page)


Era 1: Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)
Details of Era 1 Standards at the National Center for History in the Schools

African Voices

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History. Explores Africa's history, including the slave trade and colonialism. The Learning Center provides recommendations for books, CDs, videos and web links. Some sections of the site require the use of (free) browser plug-ins. An excellent site, but not accessible if you're on a slow modem.

Discover Africa!

Do you know how many African countries there are? (Answer: 54) Learn more about the countries and geography of Africa.

Wonders of the African World: With Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Videocassettes also available at Amazon.com (6 hours on 3 DVDs)

This six-part series first aired on PBS in 1999. Each part is 60 minutes long, and can be used independently. The website has lesson plans with activity sheets, student activities, and links to more resources for each segment (valuable even if you don't use the video series):

Africans in America: The Terrible Transformation 1450- 1750 ||| Available at Amazon.com

Web site for the first of the four-part PBS series. Discusses the lives of slaves and free blacks during the early colonial period. The PBS web site provides a Teacher's Guide along with the narrative, historical resources, annotated images, documents, stories, biographics, and commentaries. (Please note: this is a powerful documentary and should not be used without preview. It may not be appropriate for all audiences. I encourage you to use the resources at the PBS web site )

The Slave Route Project - UNESCO

The Slave Route Project, launched in Ouidah, Benin, in 1994, is contributing to a better understanding of the causes, forms of operation, issues and consequences of slavery in the world. You'll find a wealth of related resources at this ever-growing site.

Hine, Darlene Clark and Kathleen Thompson, editors. Facts on File Encyclopedia of Black Women in America, Volume I: The Early Years, 1619-1899. Facts on File 1997. (Middle School - Adult.) Read more at Amazon.com

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Era 2: Colonization & Settlement (1585-1763)
Details of Era 2 Standards at the National Center for History in the Schools

Caught in the Middle: The Horrors of the Middle Passage
School District of Philadelphia African American Studies Program
Grades 5-12
Internet access helpful but not required

Explores the triangular trade route which developed among North America, Europe and Africa, and how and why Africans were an integral part of this economy.

African American Odyssey: Slavery, The Peculiar Institution

Section one of a nine section exhibit featuring digital documents (posters, paintings, prints, letters, etc) in the Library of Congress. Provides background information and documents of The Atlantic Slave Trade and Liberation Strategies.

Pathways to Freedom: Maryland and the Underground Railroad

A multidisciplinary website providing an online account of Maryland's role in the multi-state network of covert byways, courageous supporters & secret hiding places. Includes teaching strategies, lesson plans, resources, extensions to math, science and more.

Gilda Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition at Yale University

While the Center's primary focus is research, they work to bridge the gap between scholars and the wider public through a variety of educational events, teacher inservices and resources, such as the online exhibit Citizens All: African Americans in Connecticut 1700-1850. Check their website for events, or subscribe to their email newsletter.

Hamilton, Virginia. Many Thousand Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom. New York: Knopf, 1993. (Middle School.) Read more at Amazon.com

Thirty-four accounts of real people, roughly in chronological order , capture a wide range of slavery experiences, but with emphasis on the indominatable spirit of those who fought for their freedom.

Gorrell, Gena K. North Star to Freedom: The Story of the Underground Railroad. New York: Delacorte, 1996. (Middle School & up.) Read more at Amazon.com

Clearly written and thorough account of all aspects of the Underground Railroad and the anti-slavery crusades.The detail is fascinating (did you know slaves rubbed onions on their feet to thwart the dogs?) and it's the kind of book most children will have difficulty putting down...I know I did! Amply illustrated, with many images I haven't seen elsewhere.

Lester, Julius. To Be A Slave. New York: Puffin, 2000. (Middle School & up.) Read more at Amazon.com

Slave narratives. This reprint of the 1968 Newbery Honor book tells the lives of slaves through their own words.

McKissack, Patricia C, and Fredrick L. McKissack. Rebels Against Slavery: American Slave Revolts. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (Middle School & up.) Read more at Amazon.com

Generously illustrated stories of the freedom fighters who, from colonial times until the Emancipation Proclamation, revolted against the sytem of slavery, either through guerilla tactics or daily resistance.

Underground Railroad (Video) The History Channel, 1998. 100 minutes. (Middle School & Up)Read more at Read more at Amazon.com

Alfre Woodard links together interviews with historians, contemporary photographs, drawings, and dramatic reenactments, exploding many myths along the way. The emphasis is placed on the fact that this was the first integrated movement for civil rights, created by thousands of unknown heroes.

Roots of Resistance, Produced for the American Experience (PBS) Amazon.com

Men and women, black and white, risked their lives to carve an elaborate network of escape routes out of slavery. PBS site has Teacher's Guide and other resources.

White, Shane and Graham White. The Sounds of Slavery: Discovering African American History through Songs, Sermons and Speech. Beacon Press, 2005. Includes 18-track CD. (High School - Adult) Read more and Order at Amazon.com

In West African tradition, sound making is functional, part and parcel of daily life, integral to most activities: working,, celebrating, praying, mourning, placating, criticizing or just passing time. It's a tradition that was carried to the New World on slave ships, a tradition which enthralled, amused, repelled or even terrified white listeners...often simultaneously. This book goes beyond the music created by enslaved Africans/African Americans (such as work songs and spirituals) to explore other forms of sound expression (including sermons, drumming, field hollers and storytelling) placed within a historical context to create a soundscape of African American slave life from the 1700's to the 1850's.

The written sources generally fall into two broad categories: the written observations of whites (letters, journal entries, and newspaper articles by travelers, missionaries, even slave owners themselves) and the testimony of former slaves collected by the WPA Federal Writer's Project during the 1930's. With only three exceptions, the sound sources on the 18-track CD are field recordings by John, Ruby and/or Alan Lomax from the late 1930's. By that point, the sounds had been "tainted" by pop culture (many are the times I have tracked down one of my father's rural childhood favorites from the 1920's, only to discover that this "old folk song" his grandma sang was actually an 1890's parlor tune) but alas, this is as close as we're going to get to listening in on a time which preceded sound reproduction devices. And as there are few things more frustrating than trying to understand sound by reading about it, the CD alone would be worth the price of the book.

The book is written in a nonlinear style, perhaps reflecting the subject matter which is itself quilt-like: slaves were constantly creating and recreating from the sound materials at hand, materials which often were not even recognized as such by white listeners. This nonlinear style could make the book a bit difficult to use for reference purposes, but fortunately it is well indexed. This fascinating soundscape is recommended for anyone interested in African American music in general, or the era of slavery in particular.

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Era 3: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820's)
Details of Era 3 Standards at the National Center for History in the Schools.

 

Proclamation for Freedom: African Americans in the Revolutionary War
School District of Philadelphia African American Studies
Grades 5-8, 3-4 Units
Does not require student internet access

"Students will be able to cite numerous African Americans who, at the time were not free but helped to fight for the freedom and independence of our nation."

African American Odyssey: Revolutionary Era

Section three of a nine section exhibit featuring digital documents (posters, paintings, prints, letters, etc) in the Library of Congress. Provides background information and documents of African American soliders in the war, colonization, and the Free Black press.

Africans in America: Revolution 1750-1805

Web site for the second part of the four-part PBS series. Discusses the lives of slaves and free blacks during the Revolutionary War era. The PBS web site provides a Teacher's Guide along with the narrative, historical resources, annotated images, documents, stories, biographics, and commentaries. (Please note: this is a powerful documentary and should not be used without preview. It may not be appropriate for all audiences.) Read more at Amazon.com

Brennan, Linda Crotta. The Black Regiment of the American Revolution. Moon Mountain Publishing, 2004. Grades 2-6 Read more or purchase at Amazon.com

Rhode Island's "Black Regiment" was made up primarily of slaves who had been promised freedom in return for fighting. This is a fascinating story, thoroughly told and amply illustrated with original watercolors, maps, historic images and documents, with sidebars for clarifications. Though designed for Grades 2-6, I feel the reading level and type size are really more suitable for 4-6, though younger grades will definitely enjoy it as a book talk.

 

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Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Details of Era 4 Standards at the National Center for History in the Schools.

The U.S. National Museum of Slavery Learning Center - Information, activities and lesson plans you can download

"At the center of the Museum’s mission is the capacity to present the complex issue of slavery in a more balanced, comprehensive and comprehensible manner. Historians now acknowledge the centrality of slavery to the early economic and political development of the United States of America. Yet, in far too many settings slavery is still viewed in a time worn reactionary and jaded manner. It is for this reason that the U. S. National Slavery Museum will become the national repository for an expanded focus on this topic along with scholarly resources to support revisionist efforts that will be directed towards new knowledge, conciliation and ultimately a much better informed public.

"The Center for Learning has already begun working with public educational institutions at the elementary and secondary levels to incorporate more complete and accurate information on slavery in their curricula and standardized assessments. Similarly, the Museum has a university consortium that will focus on improving teacher education programs as well as engaging in seminal research, archeological and anthropological projects."

The Amistad Case
National Archives and Records Administration
Middle-High School
Student internet access not required

Provides background, resources, digital primary sources (downloadable) and activities.

Heroes in Art
Art Institute of Chicago: Art Access
High School, Estimated Time: 2-3 hours (Art)
Student internet access preferred but not required

"By exploring the life and portraits of Frederick Douglass, students will gain an understanding of the history of slavery in the United States. While further examining an anti-slavery speech written by Douglass and a modern sculpture by Richard Hunt, students will begin to understand the concept of heroism and develop speech-writing and speaking skills."

New! SlaveryImages.org The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities

"The 1,280 images in this collection have been selected from a wide range of sources, most of them dating from the period of slavery. This collection is envisioned as a tool and a resource that can be used by teachers, researchers, students, and the general public - in brief, anyone interested in the experiences of Africans who were enslaved and transported to the Americas and the lives of their descendants in the slave societies of the New World."

African American Mosaic: Colonization

This online exhibit highlights materials found in the Library of Congress. Background information and digital documents related to Liberia and the American Colonization Society and other groups which proposed sending free blacks to Africa.

African American Mosaic: Abolition

This online exhibit highlights materials found in the Library of Congress. Background information and digital documents related to Abolition (both for and against) include broadsides advertising fairs and bazaars to raise money, songs, and satirical prints.

African American Odyssey: Free Blacks

Section two, part one of a nine section exhibit featuring digital documents (posters, paintings, prints, letters, etc) in the Library of Congress. Provides background information and documents of Individual Accomplishments, Emergence of the Black Church and Documenting Freedom.

African American Odyssey: Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy

Section two, part two of a nine section exhibit featuring digital documents (posters, paintings, prints, letters, etc) in the Library of Congress. Provides background information and documents related to Anti-Slavery Activists and Popularizing Anti-Slavery Sentiment.

Africans in America: Brotherly Love 1791-1831

Web site for the third part of the four-part PBS series. Discusses the lives of slaves and free blacks in the period following the American Revolution, when slavery grew stronger and free blacks fought harder for full emancipation. The PBS web site provides a Teacher's Guide along with the narrative, historical resources, annotated images, documents, stories, biographics, and commentaries. (Please note: this is a powerful documentary and should not be used without preview. It may not be appropriate for all audiences.) Read more at Amazon.com

Africans in America: Brotherly Love. Executive Producer Orlando Bagwell. 4 Videocassettes (6 hours). PBS Video. 1998. Read more at 1578071453 1578071453

Amistad Links

A comprehensive, annotated listing of links to pages about the history of the Amistad and its legacy.

African American Women Writers of the 19th Century
Digital Schomburg Collection

"A digital collection of some 52 published works by 19th-century black women writers. [...] provides access to the thought, perspectives and creative abilities of black women as captured in books and pamphlets published prior to 1920. A full text database of these 19th and early 20th- century titles, this digital library is key-word-searchable. Each individual title as well as the entire database can be searched to determine what these women had to say about "family", "religion", "slavery" or any other subject of interest to the researcher or casual reader."

Sojourner Truth

This website of the Sojourner Truth Foundation provides detailed biographical information, lesson plans and more.

Harriet Tubman

The website is maintained by Kate Clifford Larson, author of Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero. Many photos of the places associated with Tubman's life, and newly discovered information on Harriet Tubman. Sample some of her Underground Railroad success stories, family pain and sorrow, her life in slavery and freedom, and personal triumphs. Discover the real life story behind this most remarkable American woman.

Kamma, Anne. If You Lived When There Was Slavery in America. Scholastic Inc, 2004. Read more and Order at Amazon.com

This surprisingly comprehensive little book addresses over 40 questions children would dream up about a slave's life...and a few they might not. What did slaves wear? What did they eat? Would you live with your father and mother? What if your father belonged to another slave owner? Did the children have to work? What games did they play? Were any black people free? While the answers are by necessity simplified for the targeted age group (9-12) the content is honest and relatively thorough. I think this provides an excellent foundation for helping children understand this sad time in American history. Includes web and physical addresses of seven historic/interpretive sites.

Lester, Julius. To Be A Slave. New York: Puffin, 2000. (Middle School & up.) Read more at Amazon.com

A collection of slave narratives with explanatory information. This reprint of the 1968 Newbery Honor book tells the lives of slaves through their own words.

Farrow, Anne, Joel Lang & Jenifer Frank. Complicity: How the North Promoted, Prolonged and Profited from Slavery. Ballentine Books, 2005. Read more at Amazon.com

A substantial portion of America's wealth - even today - is directly attributable to the slavery. This book debunks the myth of the Virtuous North vs Evil South, and presents a wealth of photographs, broadsides and documents to help students understand how and why the entire nation depended upon and benefited from the system. Teacher's Guide

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Harvard University Press, 2000. Edited with annotation and authentification by Jean Yellin. (High School.) Order at Amazon.com

First published in 1861, this book is much more than a narrative about slavery; it addresses many issues of gender as well. To escape the philandering intentions of her master, and to try to win freedom for her children, Harriet Jacobs spent seven years hidden away in an uninsulated garret, three feet high at its tallest point with almost no air or light. Until the 1980's, this book was presumed by most scholars to be a work of fiction created by a white abolitionist, but Jean Yellin's groundbreaking research brought the real Harriet Jacobs to life. The book has been published many times since the 1960's, often in inexpensive paperback versions that are much cheaper than the edition I've linked. However, I'd recommend either this edition (which includes the short slave narrative published by Harriet's brother John, A True Tale of Slavery) or an earlier edition edited by Yellin if you want the full historical background on the book itself. (And of course, students can read the cheaper paperbacks.)

Parker John P. , Stuart Seely Sprague (Editor)His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker. NY: Norton, 1996. Order at Amazon.com

A riveting book by former slave who, having bought his way out of slavery, settled in Ripley, Ohio and risked his life helping other slaves escape. John Parker was also an entreprenuer and inventor who owned the Ripley Foundary and Machine Company, a middle-class African American like so many others we rarely hear about in the history books.

Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist Editor. Black Americans of Achievement Video Collection. Produced and Directed by Rhonda Fabian & Jerry Baber. Schlessinger Video Productions, 1992.
Adapted from the book from Chelsea House Publishers. Cleared for educational use. 30 minutes. (Middle School- Adult.) Order video from LibraryVideo.

Frederick Douglas (1818-1895) escaped from slavery and became a popular abolitionist speaker and published his autobiography and a newspaper. In addition to being deeply involved in the Underground Railroad, he worked tirelessly for the rights of blacks and women.

Sojourner Truth: Anti-slavery Activist.. Black Americans of Achievement Video Collection. Produced and Directed by Rhonda Fabian & Jerry Baber. Schlessinger Video Productions, 1992.
Adapted from the book from Chelsea House Publishers. Cleared for educational use. 30 minutes. (Middle School- Adult.) Order video from LibraryVideo

Sojourner Truth (1797-1883) was born a slave and could neither read nor write. Yet she became one of America's leading and most outspoken anti-slavery activists and feminists. She is well known for her efforts to end slavery, but not as well known for her post-Civil War activites on behalf of freedmen.

Harriet Tubman: Anti-slavery Activist. Black Americans of Achievement Video Collection. Produced and Directed by Rhonda Fabian & Jerry Baber. Schlessinger Video Productions, 1992.
Adapted from the book from Chelsea House Publishers. Cleared for educational use. 30 minutes. (Middle School- Adult.) Order video from LibraryVideo.

Like Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) was a former slave, and she is best known for her antebellum activities with the Underground Railroad for which she rescued over 300 slaves. This video sheds light on her service to the Union during the Civil War, and her post-war activites as well.

Africans in America: Brotherly Love. Executive Producer Orlando Bagwell. Part of the boxed DVD set. 2 DVDs (6 hours). PBS Video. 1998. Read more at Amazon.com

Web site for the third part of the six-part PBS series. Discusses the lives of slaves and free blacks in the period following the American Revolution, when slavery grew stronger and free blacks fought harder for full emancipation. The PBS web site provides a Teacher's Guide along with the narrative, historical resources, annotated images, documents, stories, biographics, and commentaries. (Please note: this is a powerful documentary and should not be used without preview. It may not be appropriate for all audiences.)

I Believe in Angels Singing: Songs from the Underground Railroad Era. Produced by Michael & Carrie Nobel Kline, 2004. CD Read more at Amazon.com

An anthology of twenty-five songs (a cappella field recordings) remembered from the era of the Underground Railroad and recorded on site at churches and homes in eastern Ohio, and at the Augusta Heritage Arts Center in Elkins, WV. The singers and narrators reflect on the music in the accompanying liner notes.

Harris, Kim & Reggie. Steal Away: Songs of the Underground Railroad. CD.Appleseed, 1998.

Sixteen songs, most from the era but some contemporary songs about the era. Contemporary, studio sound. Complete song list and sound samples at Amazon.com but you can order it faster through Appleseed.

The Early Minstrel Show. CD. New World Records, 1998. Includes program notes. Read more at Amazon.com

Ethiopian minstrelsy was the most popular form of theatrical entertainment in the U.S. from the late 1820's until well after the Civil War, having a huge cultural impact and creating racial stereotypes that linger today. A minstrel show featured stories, songs and skits which tried to imitate the culture of blacks, as interpreted by white performers with blackened faces. The music was usually inspired by black folk songs, which became "composed" pieces in the hands of songwriters like Stephen Foster, and then returned to the oral tradition once more. (I was surprised that the first song on the CD was the original version of a song we used to sing at Girl Scout camp, "The Boatman.") This CD meticulously re-creates the music based upon sheet music, instrumental instruction books, and manuscript musical materials. (Please note: the recreations are historically accurate, meaning derogatory images and the "N" word have not been eliminated.)

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Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
Details of Era 5 Standards National Center for History in the Schools.

The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/
National Archives and Records Administration Digital Classroom
Middle & High School
Requires internet access to download or view documents and images, but most can be done offline

Excellent selection of primary sources to help students explore the role of black soldiers and racial issues of the time. Provides thorough background information, recommended resources and many teaching suggestions. First stop if you are planning to teach about the 54th Massachusetts.

"Glory"-The Story of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment
http://www.phila.k12.pa.us/ll/curriculumsupport/aastudies/glory.html
School District of Philadelphia African American Studies Program
Grades 5-12, 4 Lessons
Student internet Access Not Required

Uses the film "Glory" to explore the role of African Americans in the Civil War, and the issue of race. Please note: the film has an R rating. If this presents a problem, or you can't obtain a public performance copy of the film, use one of the other documentaries listed below and adapt the lesson plan.

Glory. Directed by Edward Zwick. Starring Matthew Broderick, Denzel Washington, et.al. Columbia Home Video, 1991. 122 minutes. Rated R. Read more at Amazon.com

The Massachusetts 54th Colored Infantry. Produced by Jacqueline Shearer . Originally broadcast as part of The American Experience. PBS Home Video, 1991. 60 minutes. (Appears to be out of print, but available in libraries.)

The 54th Massachusetts. Producer, Pam Moore. Videocassette. A&E Home Video, 1993. 50 minutes. Read more at Amazon.com

Of Human Bondage: Exploring Perspectives on Slavery During the Civil War Using Primary and Secondary Sources
New York Times Learning Network
Middle & High School
Student internet access required unless documents are downloaded

"In this lesson, students explore how experiences and observations about a specific event or time period can vary greatly through discussion and research slavery during the Civil War. Students investigate, using primary and secondary sources, different perspectives on slavery from historical figures during the Civil War and write historical figures."

African American Odyssey: The Civil War http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart4.html

Section four of a nine section exhibit featuring digital documents (posters, paintings, prints, letters, etc) in the Library of Congress. Provides background information and documents related to The Emancipation Proclamation, and the wide variety of ways in which blacks participated in the war.

African American Odyssey: Reconstruction and It's Aftermath http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html

Section five of a nine section exhibit featuring digital documents (posters, paintings, prints, letters, etc) in the Library of Congress. Provides background information and documents related to Reconstruction, the Black Exodus, and the role of the Black Church.

Africans in America: Judgement Day, 1831- 1865

Web site for the final part of the four-part PBS series. Discusses the lives of slaves and free blacks during the period before the Civil War. The PBS web site provides a Teacher's Guide along with the narrative, historical resources, annotated images, documents, stories, biographics, and commentaries. (Please note: this is a powerful documentary and should not be used without preview. It may not be appropriate for all audiences.)

Emancipation Proclamation http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/emancipation_proclamation/

View the actual document online at the National Archives. Site includes articles and related links.

United States Colored Troops in the Civil War http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/usct.htm

A wealth of articles and data is provided at this site, including histories of various regiments, battle chronologies and burial grounds.

 

Bolden, Tonya. Maritcha: A Nineteenth-Century American Girl. Abrams, 2005. Ages 9-12. Read more and Order at Amazon.com

Maritcha Remond Lyon was one of the lucky few black children born not into slavery but as a free citizen. Her parents were educated, well-respected and hardworking people who, in addition to creating a comfortable life for their children, quietly assisted in the efforts of the Underground Railroad. Maritcha overcame illness, segregation and the New York Draft Riots of 1863 to continue her education, becoming the first black woman ever to graduate high school in Rhode Island. She become an educator herself, teaching for nearly 50 years.

This book about her childhood is based upon her unpublished memoir completed shortly before her death in 1929. Delving further into that memoir, other family archives and documents of the time, author Tonya Bolden has recreated the era in which Maritcha lived and thrived. The book is filled with period photographs, maps, illustrations and even documents which bring Maritcha to life: for example, her father's handwritten inventory of property the family lost during the Draft Riots.

This is a marvelous book, thoroughly researched, engagingly written and lavishly illustrated. Though the reading level is for ages 9-12, I think older students would benefit greatly from reading this book to younger children because it offers an exciting window into a period of U.S. history rarely covered: What was it like to be a free black person during the era of slavery?

A Woman Called Moses. Directed by Paul Wendkos. 2 Videocassettes. Xenon 2 Video, 1999. 200 minutes. Read more at Amazon.com

This video spans eras 5 and 6. Starting with her early years on a Maryland plantation, this unforgettable 1978 epic drama re-creates the life of Harriet Ross Tubman: her escape from slavery at age 29, her service on the Underground Railroad conducting hundreds of slaves to freedom, her perilous spying for the Union, and her post-war leadership of the suffrage movement. Stars Cicely Tyson, Robert Hooks, and Will Geer. Narrated by Orson Welles.

Glory. Directed by Edward Zwick. Starring Matthew Broderick, Denzel Washington, et.al. Columbia Home Video, 1991. 122 minutes. Rated R. Read more at Amazon.com

The Massachusetts 54th Colored Infantry. Produced by Jacqueline Shearer . Originally broadcast as part of The American Experience. PBS Home Video, 1991. 60 minutes. (Appears to be out of print, but available in libraries.)

The 54th Massachusetts. Producer, Pam Moore. Videocassette. A&E Home Video, 1993. 50 minutes. Read more at Amazon.com

See Lesson Plans Era 5 for more on the 54th Massachusetts

Africans in America: Judgement Day. Executive Producer Orlando Bagwell. 4 Videocassettes (6 hours). PBS Video. 1998.

Final part of the four-part PBS series. Discusses the lives of slaves and free blacks during the period before the Civil War. The PBS web site provides a Teacher's Guide along with the narrative, historical resources, annotated images, documents, stories, biographics, and commentaries. (Please note: this is a powerful documentary and should not be used without preview. It may not be appropriate for all audiences.)

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